Share your Fieldwork

The primary aim of Outreach Ethnomusicology is to share fieldwork research. Below is a list of items that are included for view by members of the community. 

Some of these articles are official documents of research which have been submitted to university departments, so they are set "not viewable" by the public, only registered members of outreach can view them. But, we welcome all sorts of articles within the interests of ethnomusicology, so please get in touch on if you think you would like to contribute.

When we receive documents, we usually will have a full read through, and then reply with a formatted version for the internet, ready to publish. How much exposure or access you want for your work will depend on your own needs, and we will publish or unpublish anything upon request. 

Thank you,



Music and Smiles: Development of Social Interactions in Children with Autism through Participation in a Community Music Group


Participation in community music groups provided these children with way of connecting with each other through music. While the effects of participating in one music group are not likely to be pronounced, small doses of joy in a child’s life have additive effects, which cumulatively lead to higher feelings of connectivity and belongingness. Even when challenges and conflicts arose within the groups, the children were able to find their own solutions and almost all of them stated that they still had a very positive experience in their community music groups. Throughout the past week, I have had children running up to me on the playground stating that they loved the music groups and demanding to know why they are over. One girl suggested that the school I will work at next year probably will not need me very much and I should really consider staying and at her school so I can continue running music groups! I do not think I will ever be finished with advocating for the inclusion of joy and play in children’s lives at school. I would like to repeat this project possibly several times over the course of my career as a school psychologist. I would certainly consider repeating this project with both populations of students with autism and with neurotypical populations. I think community music could simply be one of many interventions and options available to children who need are struggling with making friends and who possibly need an extra dose of joy in their calives.


Bakan, M. B. (2015).

Don’t Go Changing to Try and Please Me: Combating Essentialism through Ethnography in the Ethnomusicology of Autism” Ethnomusicology, Vol. 59 (1.) 116-114. Bakan, M. B. (2014).

Ethnomusicological Perspectives on Autism, Neurodiversity, and Music Therapy. Voices: A Forum for World Music Therapy, Vol. 14, No 3. California Department of Education (2015).

School Accountability Report Card (SARC). Retrieved from: Census. (2010).

United States Census Bureau. Retrieved from:

Duncan, B. L., Miller, S. D., Sparks, J A. (2004).

The Heroic Client: A Revolutionary Way to Improve Effectiveness Through Client-Directed, Outcome-Informed Therapy. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, A Wiley Company. Finnegan, E. & Starr, E. (2010).

ncreasing Social Responses in a Child with Autism: Music vs. Non-Music Interventions,SAGE publications and the National Autistic Society Vol. 14 (4.), 321-348. Lewis, R. E., & Winkelman, P. (In press).

Lifescaping Practices for School Communities: Implementing Action Research and Appreciative Inquiry. New York, NY: Routledge. Higgins, L. (2008).

Growth, pathways, and groundwork: Community music in the United Kingdom. International Journal of Community Music Vol 1, No. 1. Kravtsov, G. Kravtsova, E., Favorov, S. (2010).

Play in L.S. Vygotsky’s Nonclassical psychology. Journal of Russian and East European Psychology, Vol 48(4). 25-41. Kim, J. Wigram, T. & Gold, C. (2009).

Emotional, motivational and interpersonal responsiveness of children with autism in improvisational music therapy. SAGE publications and the National Autistic Society Vol 13 (4.) 389-409. McFerran, K. S. & Rickson D. (2014).

Community music therapy in schools: Realigning with the needs of contemporary students, staff and systems.

International Journal of Community Music Vol.7 (1). 75-92. My Outcomes Tools. (n.d.). ORS, SRS, CORS, CSRS [PDF].

Retrieved from: %20ors_srs_cors_csrs.pdf.

Pavlicevic, Mercedes, O’Neil, Nicky, Powell, Harriet, Jones, Oonagh, & Sampathianaki, Ergina. (October 2013.) “Making Music, Making Friends: Long-Term Music Therapy with Young Adults with Severe Learning Disabilities.”

Journal of Intellectual Disabilities Vol. 18(1), 5–19. Thompson, G.A., McFerran, K.S., & Gold C. (2013).

Family-centred music therapy to promote social engagement in young children with severe autism spectrum disorder: a randomized controlled study.

Child: Care, Health, and Developmen Vol 40. 840-852.

[1]Example: Track 1 “Thunder”- A child directed the rest of the group, using hand gestures, indicating when different individuals should play and how loudly or softly they should play. Available at: %201%20-%20Thunder%20.m4a?dl=0

[2] Example: Track 2 “Play”- A child is playing percussion, while I attempted to match her rhythm on the harp, a third child is directing us. Available at: %20Play%21.m4a?dl=0

[3] Example: Track 3 “Cool Beat”- Two children are playing percussion, myself and another child are playing harps. Note how the children playing percussion have created a rhythm together. Available at: -%20Cool%20Beat.m4a?dl=0